TOBA LAKE HISTORY:Greatest volcano eruption ever!

Actually what it supervulkan or super volcano? As the name implies, supervulkan is a volcano that could produce a volcanic eruption with the material larger than 1,000 cubic km.
Eruption 1,000 times larger than most historic volcanic eruption.Supervulkan can occur when magma in the bowels of the Earth rises into the crust of a hot spot, but could not break the crust.The pressure built within a large magma pool and continue to grow until the crust is no longer able to accommodate the pressure. They also can form a plate boundary, such as Lake Toba in North Sumatra, and the location of continental hot spots, such as Yellowstone in the United States. Discovery Channel said there were six supervulkan in the world, three of which exist in the U.S., the Yellowstone, Long Valley, and the Valles Caldera.
Furthermore, Lake Toba, Taupo Volcano in New Zealand, and the Aira Caldera in the middle there Sakurajima Volcano in Japan. Although only mentioned there are six supervulkan, supervulkan eruption usually affects a very large area with lava and volcanic ash and causing long-term changes in weather such as triggering the small ice, which is threatening the extinction of some species. Volcano and geological experts are not using the term supervulkan. But, after 2003, the term is used when speaking in public. Eruptions that reach index volcanic eruptions (VEI) 8 termed the "super eruption." One supervulkan currently closely monitored is Lake Toba in North Sumatra, Indonesia.
This lake had erupted around 67500-75500 years lalu.Erupsi Toba was the last of a series that led to at least three caldera eruptions that occurred at the volcano with caldera caldera formed about 700000-840000 earlier last year. Last eruption VEI 8 that it has described as the eruption megakolosal.Dengan these facts, it is possible that the eruption was the largest explosive volcanic eruptions in the last 25 million years. Toba eruption can not be compared with the eruption of another volcano or caldera has ever experienced the Earth since man could walk upright.
In fact, the eruption of Mount Krakatoa, which caused dozens of people dead in 1883, just a fingernail-sized black when compared with the eruption of Toba. Toba eruptions have the power of 150 megatons of TNT. The comparison, an atomic bomb Hirohsima "only" have the power 0.015 megaton explosion and collapse 10,000 times weaker than the eruption of Krakatoa.According to scientists, the eruption of Toba nearly wiped out the human race decades ago. Eruption spewed about 2,800 cubic kilometers of material-some 2,000 km kubiknya fell to the ground and about 800 cubic kilometers fell as dust, then the wind took him to the west. Rock flow eruption destroyed an area of 20,000 sq. km. Vulkaniknya dust blanketing almost the entire South Asian region with an average thickness of nearly 15 cm.
In one region of India, the Toba ash reaching a thickness of up to 6 meters and partly covered with volcanic ash Malaysia 9 meters thick. In addition, about 10,000 million metric tons of sulfuric acid is also released during the Toba eruption. As a result, there is acid rain. According to catastrophe theory, eruption of Toba cause the Earth experienced volcanic winter for 6-10 years, which resulted in a decrease manusia.Beberapa population researcher explained that the Toba eruption not only causes great volcanic winter, but also add episode cooling the Earth for 1,000 years. Toba caldera is the only supervulkan which can be described as brothers "larger" for the Yellowstone Caldera in the U.S..
By spewing 2800 cubic kilometers of material, the Toba eruption was even bigger than the super eruption happened 2.1 million years ago that formed Island Park Caldera in Idaho, USA. At that time, Yellowstone eruption spewed 2500 cubic kilometers of material. Toba eruption was also about three times bigger than the last eruption Lava Creek Yellowstones at 630,000 last year.Other comparisons, in addition to Krakatau, is the largest volcanic eruption in history, namely eruption of Mount Tambora, Sumbawa, Indonesia, in 1815. Tambora eruption spewed about 100 cubic miles of rock and causes in 1816 as a year without a summer in the northern region of the Earth. While the eruption of Mount St. Helen's in Washington State, USA, spewing about 1.2 cubic kilometers of material.
The largest known eruption occurred since the eruption of Toba is oruanui Volcano eruption Taupo, New Zealand, which spew about 530 cubic kilometers of magma. Subsequent collapse to form a caldera, which after filling with water, forming the Lake Toba. Samosir Island in the middle of the lake was formed by the dome of the caldera floor due to magma movements inside the Earth.


Incomplete feel if you visited the North Sumatra did not stop for a moment to Lake Toba, volcanic lake which is the largest lake in Indonesia, and even Southeast Asia. Exotic charm vast expanse of the lake like a sea with shady trees and hills, charming. The lake, measuring 1700 square meters with a depth of approximately 450 meters and lies 906 meters above sea level, in the middle of the lake there is Samosir Island became the object of not less interesting excursions.
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During his visit in 1996, Prince Bernard of the Netherlands even expressed his admiration for the beautiful panorama of the lake."Sell me name to this lake. I can not describe how beautiful Lake Toba, "he says enthusiastically.
There are seven districts around the lake, namely Simalungun, Toba Samosir, North Tapanuli, Humbang Hasundutan, Dairi, Karo, and Naidoo who has a wonderful natural panorama and a tourist destination location. Generally, tourists enjoy the beauty of Lake Toba Parapat in Simalungun and Tuktuk Siadong on Samosir Island.
It is estimated that Lake Toba explosion occurred at about 73 thousand-75 thousand years ago and is a super volcano eruption (super volcano) the most recent. Bill Rose and Craig Chesner from Michigan Technological University estimate that volcanic materials spewed out of the mountain as much as 2800 km ³, with 800 km ³ of rock Ignimbrite and 2,000 km ³ of volcanic ash which is expected in the wind to west for two weeks.
Volcanic dust in the wind has spread to half the earth, from China to South Africa. Explosion occurred during the week and throw the dust up to 10 km above sea level.
This incident caused mass death and, in some species, also followed by extinction. According to some DNA evidence, this eruption also reduced the number of people to about 60% of the total human population of the earth at that time, which is about 60 million people. The eruption was also contributed to the occurrence of ice ages, although the experts still debate.
After the eruption, the caldera formed which is then filled with water and became what is now known as Lake Toba. Pressure upward by magma that has not come out cause the emergence of Samosir Island. While enjoying the beauty of this lake, you might not imagine that the charm of the place comes from the catastrophic volcanic eruptions that brought fear and horror at the time. Travel overland to Lake Toba, precisely to Parapat, takes four to five hours from Medan. Available bus or travel directly to Parapat.The route through the Lubuk Pakam, Cliff High, and turn toward Siantar. Along the way, we were treated to a panorama of palm oil and rubber plantations.
When using the train, from Medan select a route to Siantar. From here the journey continues by bus to Parapat. Latency for an hour.
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For a place to stay and stay longer enjoyed the beauty of Lake Toba, there are many hotels and inns. In Parapat, there are at least 900 hotel rooms of all types, ranging from four star to homestay, in Tuktuk also not different. Both in Parapat and Tuktuk, tourists can instantly enjoy the lake from the rim. Rates for hotels in Parapat Tuktuk and varied, according to typical tourists who come. Starting from Rp 30 thousand to USD 500 thousand per night depending on the type of hotel.
A travel companies even offer to enjoy the beauty of Lake Toba from the air, ie use paragliding. Every tourists were given the opportunity to fly using the paragliding from the mountains Tongging District, Tanah Karo, Sumatera Utara. For tourists who want to try paragliding will be accompanied by an experienced instructor, but of course determination can fly or not depends on weather conditions and wind.
Not only that, enjoy the beautiful sunrise and sunset you can enjoy from the coastal lakes. From the Karo highlands on the north, the lake looks elongated beauty viewed from Sikodonkodon.However, there is only one resort here. On the west side, views of the lake and the island of Samosir can be perfectly seen from the Tele. There is a viewing post at an altitude of about 1,000 meters from sea level to enjoy the sunset on Lake Toba.